Sunday, February 23, 2020
Arguments for abortion - Essay Example Moreover the extent of abortion has also reduced a great deal because of the spread of awareness regarding safe sex and encouraged use of contraceptives, among even people living in the rural and backward areas of the world. The legality of abortion is a much debated topic in most countries around the world with some countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ constitutions looking down upon the subject and others allowing it with certain exceptions and till a certain date of the growth of the embryo. Many people are even concerned with the ethical issue of abortion and whether or not it involves killing another soul; all these controversies have caused a great deal of scarring on the right that women have over abortion too, because after all they carry the child and have to go through all the pain and physical trauma. (Mappes, Thomas A., and David DeGrazia) Most abortions that take place are due to unintended pregnancies and the abortion takes place depending upon the gestation period of the embryo because i f the embryo has grown into a foetus of 5 or more months, it may not be possible to carry out an elective or therapeutic mode of abortion as by the time, the baby is almost fully developed. Many abortions are carried out because of issues ranging from rape and incest to health risks being posed to the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s body and her inability to carry the child due to lack of nutrition, proper health care facilities etc. In many cases, the abortion may be spontaneous, resulting in a miscarriage, when the embryo or the foetus faces an unintentional expulsion. This usually takes place before the 24th week of gestation. If a miscarriage takes place before 37 weeks of gestation then it is termed as a premature birth and not an abortion or miscarriage because by this time, the live infant is delivered, and may in many cases be a still born. Such spontaneous abortions may be caused by accidental trauma or even stress. (Mappes, Thomas A., and David DeGrazia) The medical methods of having an ab ortion till the early gestation period include ingesting medicines containing mifepristone misoprostol combinations of 200 mg followed by 800 mcg of vaginal or buccal misoprostol and these medicines may be effective till the 9th gestation week. In most European countries like France, Britain, Switzerland and Nordic countries this is the most common medicine used by people and they tend to abort their pregnancies before the 9th week. In the United States of America on the other hand, the number of women ending their pregnancies in such early weeks are far lower. The surgical methods used till 15 weeks of gestation are suction or vacuum aspiration where a syringe is used to remove the foetus or the embryo and the placenta with an electric pump. (Mappes, Thomas A., and David DeGrazia) Many doctors also use the method of menstrual extraction where a cervical dilation is not required. Another method encouraged by the World Health Organization is called Curettage where the walls of the ut erus are cleaned with a curette, leading to very less chances of infection and bleeding. In many backward areas of the world, several unclean and unhygienic methods are used that are very unsafe and tend to cause deaths among pregnant women in their attempt to have their child aborted such as the insertion of objects like hangers and knitting needles inside the vagina to remove the foetus or embryo. The issue of abortion is one of the most widely discussed debates in the world today; it involves the riddance
Friday, February 7, 2020
Muhammad The Revelation of the Qua'ran fuels early Islamic growth - Essay Example s at that time, the manner in which Quran played a pivotal role in fuelled the growth of Islam and will also shed light on the life of Muhammad, who is the spiritual leader of more than 1.8 billion Muslims all over the world. Muhammad was born in 570 A.D in the city of Mecca, located in the Arabian Peninsula. He belonged to the respected clan of the Quraysh, who were not only well-to-do merchants but also the keepers of the Holy KaÃ¢â¬â¢abah. The KaÃ¢â¬â¢abah is the oldest known structure and attracted pilgrims from the entire Peninsula. (Haykal, 1994) MuhammadÃ¢â¬â¢s grandfather Abd al-Muttalib was the custodian and after his demise, the responsibility was passed on to his uncle Abu Talib. Muhammad was orphaned at a very young and was raised by his grandfather and then his uncle; hence Muhammad had a very honorable lineage and upbringing as he had been under the tutelage of some of the most respected members of the society. (Haykal, 1994) Despite the countless vices that pervaded the Arabian society at that, Muhammad earned the love and respect of the people for his honesty and truthfulness. He never indulged in corrupt activity and when he was 25 years old, he was hired a widowed businesswoman Khadija. Despite the fact that Muhammad was younger than Khadija and had an age difference of 11 years, they were bound by matrimony and together had a fairly happy marriage that lasted for a quarter of a century until the death of Khadija. Polygamy was rampant at that time, but throughout his marriage to Khadija, Muhammad never took up a new wife and remained devoted to her completely. Muhammad had always rejected the religion of Arabia at that that was largely based on paganism and idol worship. Muhammad felt that the idols were not responsible for giving life or creating this world, and was highly perturbed by the lawlessness that permeated every aspect of the society. In order to get away from these lecherous affairs of the society, he found solace in meditation and
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Leadership and Management in Nursing Essay Nursing is a very demanding and dedicated profession and the current shortage is a serious problem at all levels of nursing and is the dearth of leaders among nurses. Leadership and management are essential skills for all qualified healthcare professionals and have a pivotal role in ensuring a delivery of high standards of care. Developing future nurse leaders is one of the greatest challenges faced by the nursing profession, (Mahoney, 2001). The author is currently working as a midwife in one of the big hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The average deliveries per month are 500-600. There are 22 midwives in this unit and there are eight vacant posts for midwives . Due to the shortage of midwives, these professional staffs are subjected to personal and work related stress. Preston et, al. (1981) defined stress as an adaptive response, mediated by individual characteristics or psychological processes. The negative effects of stress could be evident in staff absenteeism, hostility, and aggression. This will impair the provision of quality care and the effective functioning of the organization. (Healy amp; McKay, 1999). The adverse effect of workload and stress in the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s placement has lead to an alarming high staff turnover. Apparently, the increased workload has affected the staff performances and the quality of nursing care. When the staff feel that they are not cared for, then they find it difficult to care for patients ( Atwater amp; Bass 1994, Lancaster 1999). In this assignment, the author will explore the various leadership styles and their theories and also distinguish the functions between leadership and management. The author will also critically explore the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership practice in labor and delivery suite, thus creating a culture of reducing stress. The link of leadership style from the aspect of work, environment, communication, empowerment, delegation, implications, conclusion and recommendations will be discussed further. Leaders are not someone who holds top position but also able to give assistance to others, (Mahoney, 2001). Whereas in my placement, the head nurse, who is the leader, never gives a helping hand during the deliveries. She anticipates the midwives to conduct and manage the deliveries, even though thereÃ¢â¬â¢s shortage of staff. The nurse manager has to prepare the correct number of staff on each shift with the credentials to do the job and must be aware of the policies regarding overtime, floating from one unit to another. She must form a competent team and manage them to carry out the plan for reaching the goal of excellent patient care. Effective leaders are not merely someone who is skillful but they must acquire good attitudes, (Cook, 2001). The nurse manager must understand the factors surrounding the current situation in the unit and have the knowledge of various approaches to leadership that will help to understand and determine the best leadership approach to create a positive work environment to reduce stress. Leadership is defined as the ability to influence, inspire and motivate a group of people towards the achievement of its goal, (Yuki, 2002). Management is a process of getting things done effectively through planning and organization of services which is one of the basic function of management whereas the leader is an intermediary between work group and the top management, (Marquis and Huston, 2006). The manager uses a formal and rational method whilst the leader uses passions and stirs emotions. Without enabling and empowering nursing leadership, efforts to improve the quality and safety of healthcare will be limited and short-lived, as said by Kelly (2008). For a leader to achieve the goal, she must have the three essential things which are power, authority and influence to act in a way that will stimulate a positive respond from the staff (Tomey, 2009). Leaders will emerge when nurses feel valued and inspired to strive for excellence. They aim to improve patient care via a cohesive work force by focusing on interpersonal relationships between leaders and subordinates, (Malby 1997). A nursing leader should have a distinctive set of personal qualities, integrity, courage, initiative, ability to handle stress, think critically, able to resolve problems without conflicts, skillful communication and must be empathetic. They are not those who control others but they act as visionaries who help staff to plan, lead, control and organize their activities, (Jooste,2004). There are many types of leadership. Autocratic type of leaders are those who make all decisions and expect others to follow without questioning and never seek advice from others, (Sullivan amp; Decker 2005). This situation had made some of the midwives to leave for greener pastures. The current health system has advanced in technology and improved in care giving services (Cook, 2001). The author feels that this leadership style is no longer tenable and fits into the contemporary nursing practice and a consumer responsive culture. Democratic leaders encourage the participant of staff and use a consensus for decision making, (Sullivan amp; Decker 2005) whereas bureaucratic leadership occurs when a leader rigidly adheres to rules, regulations and policies of the organization, (Jenkins and Henderson, 1984). Instead of providing sufficient support and consideration, my nurse manager demonstrates these leadership qualities because she uses rules and policies thus expecting strict compliance from the midwives. . By following the organizational hierarchyÃ¢â¬â¢s influence, she puts herself in a high position but never use her power constructively (Masquis amp; Huston, 2006). Due to top management instructions, she adheres to the current policies, making no changes in them but gives verbal instruction and changing policies to her likes and dislikes. This swifts away trust and open communications between the manager and the midwives. Due to unvented stress and high expectations from the nurse manager, the midwives burnout level have been exacerbated . Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment, as said by Maslach amp;Jackson (1981). Reports have proved that in this kind of environment, patientÃ¢â¬â¢s safety is at risk (Institute of Medicine, 2004). Participative leadership allows staff to participate in decision making and actively seek out the participation of those involved. This type of leadership allows staff to feel more committed to the goals they were involved (Faugier amp; Woolnough, 2002). The author feels that the head nurse should have these qualities so that the unit will run smoothly, and the staff will be appreciated and acknowledged so that good nursing care can be rendered. Transformational leadership is especially well suited for todayÃ¢â¬â¢s fast changing healthcare environment where adaptation is extremely important (Welford,2002). It starts with the development of a vision that will excite and convert potential followers, (Outhwaite, 2003). To achieve organizational success, this style advocates for strong leadership qualities and these leaders use motivation in their approach than use rewards and punishment as said by Kouzes amp; Posner (2002). In the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, this leadership is proposed as empowering leadership style which well suits in my unit and to be recognized by the nurse manager. According to Bowles amp; Bowels (2002), transformational leaders create a leadership culture for all team members nurturing empowerment, increase their autonomy and open communication for inclusive decision making. The nurse manager takes responsibilities for discussing care related matters with the midwives which makes them to be motivated and work more effectively to contribute to the development and provision of the unit, (Murphy. 2005). The ability of the leader to articulate a shared vision is an important aspect of transformational leadership (Faugier amp; Woolnough, 2002). Another leadership style is transactional leadership which focuses on providing day to day care between leaders and their employee. It aims to maintain equilibrium and harmony by using incentives to enhance staff loyalty and performance (Bass and Riggio, 2006). Laissez faire leadership is another style that leaves the staff alone to work with no directions or facilitations and is a highly risky form of leadership, (Sullivan amp; Decker 2005). Since the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s placement is labor and delivery, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not advisable to have this kind of leader in this unit as it will increase the mortality rate. The high level of burnout and increased workload due to shortage of midwives and less rest days has resulted them to leave. This disequilibrium may trigger the risk of physical and mental health of these midwives. The manager has depleted the nurses basic psychological needs which are rest and sleep and at the same time reducing their self- esteem, as said in MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of human motivation. The leader should explore barriers and identify conflicts when they arise and collaborate with the team and be able to understand the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective (Outhwaite,2003). A more effective form of leadership maybe situational leadership where the leader switches the style depending upon the situation at hand and upon the competence of the staff, (Faugier amp; Woolnough, 2002). The nurse manager must be good clinician and have judgment skills to handle any problem that cannot be handled by the staff. By doing so, the staff will listen to her as she guides them. Communication also plays a vital role as this can prevent conflict and smoothes the progress of team building in the unit Calpin-Davies, (2000). A good communicator gives the staff detailed instructions to perform tasks that are necessary to reach the goal. The nurse manager uses a communication book to provide important information to all the staff in the unit, as supported by Sullivan amp; Decker (2005). By reading and acknowledging with a signature, she assures the message has been reached effectively. As a leader, the nurse manager has to be a good listener. It provides the opportunity to receive valuable feedback that is used to avert some problems and resolve others and also giving greater understanding of the issues being discussed. When there are incidences in the unit, the nurse manager gives a listening ear to the staff and tries to solve the problems. She puts aside preconceived ideas or prejudices when listening to staff. Being a leader, the nurse manager delegates some of the tasks to the staff to focus on more complex aspects of running the unit. She delegates the right task to the right person, for example sending and collecting of narcotics by the midwife as these drugs used are cautioned in Saudi Arabia. A good leader fosters a congenial work environment by coaching, praising and training the staff to perform an excellent job and also by conducting continuous nursing education. Supervision goes in the observation of staff and to evaluate in the yearly performance appraisal. The author would recommend that the nurse manager in this unit has to change her leadership style to She should resources for proper quality care Conclusion Today, healthcare environment requires leaders to be skillful and knowledgeable and have strong inspirational leadership qualities across the health care organization. In this millennium, nursing must make a dedicated effort to nurture its young nurses to grow into effective and motivating leaders.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, depicts a vivid reality of the hardships endured by the African American culture in the period of slavery. One of the many things shown in Frederick's narrative is how slaves, in their own personal way, resisted their masters authority. Another is how slaves were able to create their own autonomous culture within the brutal system in which they were bound. There are many examples in the narrative where Frederick tries to show the resistance of the slaves. The resistors did not go unpunished though, they were punished to the severity of death. Fredrick tells of these instances with a startling sense of casualness, which seems rather odd when comprehending the content of them. He does this though, not out of desensitization, but to show that these were very commonplace things that happened all over the South at the time. One example that Frederick mentioned in the subject of resistance of the slaves against the masters is when he was under the charge of Mr. Gore. A slave by the name of Demby was getting whipped for a mistake he made. After Demby received but a few stripes he ran and jumped into a creek to the depth of his shoulders and refused to come out. This took great bravery considering Mr. Gore had a famous reputation for being nasty to slaves. Demby was given to the count of three to get out of the creek or he was to be shot, knowing the consequences Demby still refused to get out. He was then shot in the face by Mr. Gore with a musket. Demby truly resisted his master at the greatest cost he could have paid, his life. Another example given by Frederick in his narrative of how slaves were able to ... ...laves to be drunk during this time; in fact, they often got angry if they weren't drunk. Frederick feels that the master tries to make the slaves sick of freedom during this holiday time, by showing them only the abuse of it rather than the good. There was also a mention of a couple of "classes" among the black slaves. Slaves, from the viewpoint of Frederick, I feel, had a sort of "slave-class". The richer your master was the higher class you were, the poorer your master was the lower class you were. "To be a poor man's slave was a disgrace indeed!", was what Frederick mentioned of the issue. As you can see Frederick Douglass provided many glimpses into the world of slavery in his narrative. He showed many different examples of how slaves were able to resist their masters and create their own autonomous culture within the brutal system of slavery.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Labor DisputesÃ¢â¬ includes any controversy or matter concerning terms or conditions of employment or the association or representation of persons in negotiating, fixing, maintaining, changing or arranging the terms and d conditions of employment, regardless or whether the disputants stand in the proximate relation of employer and employee. (Art. 212) Remedies in Labor Disputes A.Grievance ProcedureÃ¢â¬âin-house adjustment of complaint, problem, or dispute following the steps prescribed in CBA or company policy. B.Conciliation (literally means Ã¢â¬Å"to draw togetherÃ¢â¬ ) Ã¢â¬â a process where a disinterested third party meets with management and labor, at their request or otherwise, during a labor dispute or in collective bargaining conferences, and, by cooling tempers, aids in reaching an agreement. C.Mediation (literally means Ã¢â¬Å"to be in the middleÃ¢â¬ ) Ã¢â¬â a third party studies each side of the dispute then makes proposal for the disputants to consider. But a mediator, like a conciliator, cannot render an award or render a decision; they do not adjudicate. Conciliation and mediation, usually combined, are done primarily by Ã¢â¬Å"Conciliators-MediatorsÃ¢â¬ of the National Conciliation and Mediation Board. D.Enforcement or compliance order Ã¢â¬â an act of the Secretary of Labor (through Regional Director or the representative) in the exercise of his visitorial or administrative authority to enforce labor laws, policies, plans, or programs, or rules and regulations (Art. 128). E.Certification of bargaining representatives Ã¢â¬â determination of which contending unions shall represent employees in collective bargaining. This is handling by Ã¢â¬Å"Med-ArbitersÃ¢â¬ of DOLE Regional Offices after certification of consent elections. F.Arbitration Ã¢â¬â the submission of a dispute to an impartial person for determination on the basis of evidence and arguments of the parties. Arbitration, unlike conciliation or mediation, is adjudication and the arbitratorÃ¢â¬â¢s decision or award is enforceable upon the disputants. A dispute pending in arbitration cannot be a ground for strike or lockout; to do so will be a sabotage of the arbitration process. Section 3. Article 211 of the same Code, as amended by Executive Order No. 111, is hereby further amended to read as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"Article 211. Declaration of policy. Ã¢â¬â A. It is the policy of the State: Ã¢â¬Å"(a) To promote and emphasize the primacy of free collective bargaining and negotiations, including voluntary arbitration, mediation and conciliation, as modes of settling labor or industrial disputes; Ã¢â¬Å"(b) To promote free trade unionism as an instrument for the enhancement of democracy and the promotion of social justice and development; Ã¢â¬Å"(c) To foster the free and voluntary organization of a strong and united labor movement; Ã¢â¬Å"(d) To promote the enlightenment of workers concerning their rights and obligations as union members and as employees; Ã¢â¬Å"(e) To provide adequate administrative machinery for the expeditious settlement of labor or industrial disputes; Ã¢â¬Å"(f) To ensure a stable but dynamic and just industrial peace; and Ã¢â¬Å"(g) To ensure the participation of workers in decision and policy-making processes affecting their rights, duties and welfare. Ã¢â¬Å" B. To encourage a truly democratic method of regulating the relations between the employers and employees by means of agreements freely entered into through collective bargaining, no court or administrative agency or official shall have the power to set or fix wages, rates of pay, hours of work or other terms and conditions of employment, except as otherwise provided under this Code.Ã¢â¬ Sec. 4. Article 212 of the Labor Code of the Philippines, as amended, is further amended to read as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"Article 212. Definitions. Ã¢â¬â (a) Ã¢â¬Å"CommissionÃ¢â¬ means the National Labor Relations Commission or any of its divisions, as the case may be, as provided under this Code. Ã¢â¬Å"(b) Ã¢â¬Å"BureauÃ¢â¬ means the Bureau of Labor Relations and/or the Labor Relations Divisions in the regional offices established under Presidential Decree No. 1, in the Department Labor. Ã¢â¬Å"(c) Ã¢â¬Å"BoardÃ¢â¬ means the National Conciliation and Mediation Board established under Exec utive Order No. 126. Ã¢â¬Å"(d) Ã¢â¬Å"CouncilÃ¢â¬ means the Tripartite Voluntary Arbitration Advisory Council established under Executive Order No. 126, as amended. Ã¢â¬Å" (e) Ã¢â¬Å"EmployerÃ¢â¬ includes any person acting in the interest of an employer, directly or indirectly. The term shall not include any labor organization or any of its officers or agents except when acting as employer. Ã¢â¬Å"(f) Ã¢â¬Å"EmployeeÃ¢â¬ includes any person in the employ of an employer. The term shall not be limited to the employees of a particular employer, unless this Code so explicitly states. It shall include any individual whose work has ceased as a result of or in connection with any current labor dispute or because of any unfair labor practice if he has not obtained any other substantially equivalent and regular employment. Ã¢â¬Å"(g) Ã¢â¬Å"Labor organizationÃ¢â¬ means any union or association of employees which exists in whole or in part for the purpose of collective bargaining or of dealing with employers concerning terms and conditions of employment. Ã¢â¬Å"(h) Ã¢â¬Å"Legitimate labor organizationÃ¢â¬ means any labor organization duly registered with the Department of Labor and Employment, and includes any branch or local thereof. Ã¢â¬Å" (i) Ã¢â¬Å"Company unionÃ¢â¬ means any labor organization whose information, function or administration has been assisted by any act defined as unfair labor practice by this Code. Ã¢â¬Å"(j) Ã¢â¬Å"Bargaining representativeÃ¢â¬ means a legitimate labor organization or any officer or agent of such organization whether or not employed by the employer. Ã¢â¬Å"(k) Ã¢â¬Å"Unfair labor practiceÃ¢â¬ means any unfair labor practice as expressly defined by this Code. Ã¢â¬Å"(l) Ã¢â¬Å"Labor disputeÃ¢â¬ includes any controversy or matter concerning terms or conditions of employment or the association or representation of persons in negotiating, fixing, maintaining, changing or arranging the terms and conditions of employment, regardless of whether, the disputants stand in the proximate relation of employer and employee. Ã¢â¬Å" (m) Ã¢â¬Å"Managerial employeeÃ¢â¬ is one who is vested with powers or prerogatives to lay down and execute management policies and/or to hire, transfer, suspend, lay-off, recall, discharge, assign or discipline employees. Supervisory employees are those who, in the interest of the employer, effectively recommend such managerial actions if the exercise of such authority is not merely routinary or clerical in nature but requires the use of independent judgment. All employees not falling within any of the above definitions are considered rank-and-file employees for purposes of this Book. Ã¢â¬Å" (n) Ã¢â¬Å"Voluntary ArbitratorÃ¢â¬ means any person accredited by the Board as such, or any person named or designated in the collective bargaining agreement by the parties to act as their voluntary arbitrator, or one chosen, with or without the assistance of the National Conciliation and Mediation Board, pursuant to a selection procedure agreed upon in the collective bargaining agreement, or any official that may be authorized by the Secretary of Labor and Employment to act as voluntary arbitrator upon the written request and agreement of the parties to a labor dispute. Ã¢â¬Å"(o) Ã¢â¬Å"StrikeÃ¢â¬ means any temporary stoppage of work by the concerted action of employees as a result of an industrial or labor dispute. Ã¢â¬Å" (p) Ã¢â¬Å"LockoutÃ¢â¬ means the temporary refusal of an employer to furnish work as a result of an industrial or labor dispute. Ã¢â¬Å"(q) Ã¢â¬Å"Internal union disputeÃ¢â¬ includes all disputes or grievances arising from any violation of or disagreement over any provision of the constitution and by-laws of a union, including, any violation of the rights and conditions of union membership provided for in this Code. Ã¢â¬Å" (r) Ã¢â¬Å"Strike-breakerÃ¢â¬ means any person who obstructs, impedes, or interferes with by force, violence, coercion, threats or intimidation any peaceful picketing by employees during any labor controversy affecting wages, hours or conditions of work or in the exercise of the right of self-organization or collective bargaining. Ã¢â¬Å"(s) Ã¢â¬Å"Strike areaÃ¢â¬ means the establishment, warehouses, depots, plants or offices, including the sites or premises used as runaway shops, of the employer struck against, as well as the immediate vicinity actually used by picketing strikers in moving to and fro before all points of entrance to and exit from said establishment.Ã¢â¬
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2136 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/02/05 Category Health Essay Level High school Topics: Smoking Essay Did you like this example? I believe that tobacco and cigarettes should be banned from the United States. Smoking is one of the top causes of deaths that can be preventable, not just in America but all around the world. Of course, it does not seem dangerous at first but after continuous use of these things, they can be very harmful to you and your body. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Why Smoking Should be Banned" essay for you Create order The smoke is also dangerous because not only does it damage your lungs from breathing it in but it also harms the lungs of those breathing in the smoke you exhale that are around you. They cause cancer and have major side effects that will live with you your whole life. My grandpaÃ¢â¬â¢s father actually died of lung cancer. He started smoking at the age of 12. Some people I know have even started smoking younger than that. Tobacco and the other ingredients in cigarettes are toxic for your body. They are addictive which causes your body to rely on the substance. It also costs a great amount of money when you add in how much you spend on them. It is overall a thing that is not good for you and your health and can end up being deadly. Tobacco and smoking cigarettes have been around for ages. Back in the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s everyone smoked and chewed tobacco. Leading towards the 2000Ã¢â¬â¢s is when scientists really began to look at how bad for you it really is. The tobacco crop was first acknowledged around 6,000 B.C. and was originally found in the Americas. In 1492, when Christopher Columbus first set foot on what is now the North American continent, he was greeted by Indians. They brought the explorers many gifts, one of those gifts being a dried-up leaf of a tobacco plant. Back in those days, Native Americans smoked the tobacco leaves for medical and religious reasons. The addictive plant was always around but it became very popular in the 1770Ã¢â¬â¢s, during the time of the Revolutionary War. Tobacco was used by the revolutionaries to pay back the loans they were getting from France (Tobaccofreelife.org, 2018). Now, it is used as a variety of things, most commonly it is rolled into cigarettes and cigars and is smoked. It can also be used as something you can chew. In 1906 the government created a Food and Drugs Act. This was the first food and drug law and was used to tax people for buying these certain goods. In the original act there was no reference to tobacco. However, when it was revised in 1914, they added that tobacco only be included when used to cure, mitigate, or prevent disease. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 included jurisdiction in cases where the manufacturer or seller has made medical claims with their products. In 1953, Fairfax cigarettes manufacturer stated that these particular cigarettes prevented respiratory and other diseases. Then in 1959, Trim Reducing Aid Cigarettes had an addictive tartaric acid inside them which was said to aid people in losing weight (CDC, 2012). The Federal Trade Commission act of 1914 (which was amended in 1940) states that it is to Ã¢â¬Å"prevent persons, partnerships, or corporations Ã¢â¬ ¦ from using unfair or deceptive acts or practices in commerceÃ¢â¬ . Then from 1945 Ã¢â¬â 1960 the FTC finished seven formal Ã¢â¬Å"cease-and-desistÃ¢â¬ order or proceedings for health and medical claims. An example of one of these claims is in 1942 there was a countering of claims that Kool cigarettes provide extra protection against illnesses and could even cure the common cold. This then caused a rule to be made about being stricter when regulating the imagery and copy of cigarette ads and the need to get rid of explicit or implicit health claims with the product (CDC, 2012). It was not right to falsely advertise that a product can cure something or benefit your health wise when in reality they are not good for you. Many companies did not know that at the time. In 1960 came the Federal Hazardous Substances Labeling Act and then eventually in 1965 they added Advertising onto it. This act required the package to have a warning label stating Ã¢â¬Å"Caution: Cigarette Smoking May Be Hazardous to Your HealthÃ¢â¬ (other health warnings prohibited). It also prevents the states or local governments from regulating or agreeing to cigarette adverting being able to promote them for health-related reasons (CDC, 2012). There are more and more Acts and Laws that stem from these original ones, far too many to mention. This is a good sign because it shows that the public know that cigarettes and tobacco use are harmful and dangerous. In 2018 they have started to even make electronic cigarettes put on a warning label about addiction and nicotine. Many people and children are thought to have begun smoking cigarettes due to peer influence or to Ã¢â¬Å"look coolÃ¢â¬ . Kids seem to try it because they see someone they know doing it. My father, Mike Squires, started chewing tobacco when he was 14 and started smoking cigarettes at age 16. He says he first decided to smoke because it was the thing to do back then, everyone did it. He was influenced by his dad and his brother who was 5 years older than him (Squires, 2018). Whenever his brother and all of his friends started experimenting with cigarettes my dad did also. It was what the Ã¢â¬Å"coolÃ¢â¬ kids were doing and he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to seem Ã¢â¬Å"lameÃ¢â¬ . My dad now smokes cigars but they are still not good for you. They still contain tobacco and hurt your lungs throat, nose, and your overall body/brain function. When interviewing my dad, I asked him if he knew exactly what was in cigarettes and he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Actually, many of the worlds smoking population donÃ¢â¬â¢t know exactly what they are smoking and how harmful they can really be. Cigarettes only have 600 ingredients in them, however, when they are burned the smoke is a toxic mixture of over 7,000 chemicals not good for humans. 69 of those toxins have been known to cause cancer, which in most cases has ended up fatal (Scrub, 2018). If I went through the whole list of chemicals produced by the smoke this essay would be 100 pages long. There as been a large controversy on if cigarette companies should put their ingredients on the packaging and still to this day many of them donÃ¢â¬â¢t. Although even if they did, the labels still will not tell you how dangerous they are once you actually light them and the ingredients mix together. With all these harmful chemicals and ingredients, you would wonder why people would smoke cigarettes. In cigarettes and chewing tobacco there is a substance called Nicotine. It is a drug that effects your body and brain. Once taken in, it makes your brain release adrenaline which then creates a Ã¢â¬Å"buzzedÃ¢â¬ feeling, gives you energy and pleasure (Markou, 2008). The buzz leaves quickly once felt which causes you body to feel tired and your mood to feel a little down. Your body wants to feel the buzz again thus continues to go back to the substance you were intaking before. The immediate side effects that hit your body depend on the dosage. A low dose of nicotine causes a reduction of activity in the nervous system and brain. It also increases your alertness and concentration almost like a burst of energy (Martin, 2008). Like I stated earlier, it gives you a buzzed sensation, a type of relaxation. My dad said that he does not feel a buzz but he does feel an overwhelming sense o f calm, and begins to feel relaxed in stressed situations (Squires, 2018). The nicotine also increases your blood pressure and heart rate. While doing this, it is limiting your blood flow to your fingers and toes, and decreasing your skin temperature. The cigarette and tobacco itself will cause bad breath, dizziness, nausea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, headaches and coughing due to smoke irritation. It also causes a decrease in your appetite which can also make you sick. The high doses have the same side effects as the low doses except they are heightened because of the stronger intake. Confusion also becomes a part of it as well as a rapid decrease in breathing rate, seizures, and respiratory arrest (Martin, 2008). Your body can go into respiratory arrest when your lungs are over working themselves so you just stop breathing, which then ultimately leads to death. The long-term effects are even worse. Tar coats the inside of your lungs and can cause lung and throat cancer. Your finger nails and teeth begin to have a yellow/ brown stain on them. Your whole body is running harder because it is not getting enough oxygen in which the brain, muscles, and heart need. All of this then leads the risk to a heart attack or stroke. You can develop eye cataracts and can lose the sense of smell and taste. Also, there are reports of losing the sense of hearing. Your teeth will eventually start decaying and you will experience shortness of breath, coughing, early wrinkles, heart disease, and back pain. Of course, you have even more risk of cancer in your nose, lip, tongue, mouth, stomach, and bladder. You can also get stomach ulcers. For women, can have a lower chance of fertility because of the damage to your insides and men can damage their sperm (ADF, 2012). With all this information out there, there are still some people who say we should keep cigarettes and tobacco around because they are used to get off other habits. For example, a continuous drinker may decide to stay sober but instead of going cold turkey, he will smoke cigarettes to help take the edge off. People use cigarettes as a way to cope with stress. This has to do with the calming factor that the side effects give you. However, as I have said before that relaxing feeling is a temporary feeling, making you crave more which then causes you to smoke more. Ã¢â¬Å"People who quit smoking say that stress is the number one reason for relapseÃ¢â¬ (New Foundland Labrador, 2017). When actually smoking may cause more anxiety and tension within the body. In the effects mentioned earlier the cigarette actually causes your blood pressure and your heart rate increase which is actually something that happens to your body when you are in distress. Your muscles become tense because of the lack of oxygen. And once this feeling of Ã¢â¬Å"relaxationÃ¢â¬ wears off, you will actually feel more stressed then you did before because your body will begin going through withdrawal. My father runs his own restaurant and stresses 24/7. He told me that when he stresses, he gets fidgety and needs to do something with his hands. So, he goes outside on a smoke break to relieve the stress and he did confirm that after the breaks his stress becomes more frequent and bigger. This then causes him to go on more and more smoke breaks. The only thing that keeps him from doing that is if he is constantly kept busy, then he has no time to stress let alone think because there is so much to get done. He does not notice the urge as much (Squires, 2018). There is no real evidence that cigarettes help with stress and get others off of other bad habits. Everyone knows cigarettes and tobacco are harmful and deadly. One of the many reasons they still around is because of money. Because of the addictions, cigarette companies make a lot of revenue from continuous buyers. The Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that cigarette companies in the United States make close to $26 million dollars each day. This means the average smoker spends $29 a day on cigarettes and about $250 a year (CDC, 2017). In 2010 there was a count on how much the top six tobacco companies made throughout the year and the total number was $35.1 billion (Society, 2014). Squires stated when speaking with me that he spends at least $10 a week since changing to cigars, however, he does not smoke as often anymore and cigars are less expensive (Squires, 2018). Some of this money is being put back into the growing production, manufacturing and shipping of the product, as well as packaging. The most part of the money is spent toward advertising. The government is also making a major profit off the cigarette market. At the end of the year 2010, the federal government made $25 million off cigarette taxes and the state governments made $10 million (Lauren, 2017). This is a money-making industry which is also why many people want to the toxic substance around. Companies and the government are taking in all the revenue from these addicted persons. But what the government need to realize is the health of their people matters more. In 2011, about 6 million people died from the continuous use of tobacco. This means that the tobacco companies real-in almost $6,000 in profit for every death that was caused by tobacco (Society, 2014).
Friday, December 27, 2019
Little Bit (mis)Judged Throughout United States history, the nation saw many different presidents. Some terms were too short to evaluate the legacy, and others had many events that led to a mixed legacy. It is always hard to rank the presidents based on the greatest, the most impactful, or even the most overrated. Lyndon B. Johnson, the 36th President of the United States, arguably had an impactful presidency, but he was also a very overrated one. His domestic policy looks good because he addressed the Civil Rights at the right time, but at the same time his War on Poverty left unanswered problems. His foreign affair was dominated by the horrid Vietnam War, but he also played a part for the CIA-supported coup dÃ¢â¬â¢etats that resulted in deaths of thousands of innocent people all over the world. In addition, Johnson did not show strong, powerful traits that most presidents should have while he was in office. One major thing that Johnson gets credit for is addressing the civil rights. He passed a couple of significant acts that allowed civil rights to African Americans. This is seen as one of his positives during his term. However, an argument can be made that this could have been accomplished during the Kennedy administration. Of course, there is much evidence that Kennedy was in fact hesitant when it came to civil rights issues, but the Cold War played a part with KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s action. Timing did not help Kennedy while he was in office. During his tenure, Kennedy had to dealShow MoreRelatedCultural Analysis of the Coldest Winter Ever1658 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesspend what little money she has on what is considered in style. Winter does not possess the will to put her money to the side and live within her means. This illustrates a problematic aspect of the African American community. Material identity has become a prevalent aspect surrounding the hip-hop community. 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